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DNA purification is among the most popular and significant methods used in molecular biology. Purification of DNA is aimed at getting rid of the desired genetic material (chromosomal material) from other contaminants like proteins as well as RNA and cell membrane. This is an essential procedure in nearly all molecular applications. It must be done correctly to obtain high-quality and usable DNA.

There are a variety of options for DNA purification. The selection is based on a myriad of factors, such as the starting materials, downstream applications, cost, and time constraints. Typical DNA purification protocols include chemical treatment, enzymatic digestion or mechanical disruption of tissue or cell samples followed by salting-out of the proteins and the precipitation of DNA using alcohol.

Ethanol precipitation can be a low-cost easy and quick method of desalting and concentration DNA. DNA molecules accumulate in the presence monovalent cations such as sodium, and then they are removed from the solution by using high concentrations of ethanol. This technique permits the removal of organic compounds, and other impurities from a sample. It is often used in combination with other purification methods.

Another method of DNA purification is anion exchange chromatography. DNA in a solution is bonded to positively charged resins due to the interaction between the negatively charged DNA phosphate backbone and the positively charged surface molecules of the resin. During the binding and washing steps, contaminating molecules are removed from the DNA by stringent wash steps, and then the DNA that is purified is eluted under low salt conditions.